Umberto Zardi invented the kettle type carbamate condenser
Mr. Umberto Zardi, president of Casale Group, has numerous patents registered. One we like to highlight: US patent 4,082,797 filed on April 20, 1976. This patent claims the invention of the horizontal kettle type high pressure carbamate condenser and at that time Mr. Umberto Zardi worked for Snamprogetti.
“In a urea-synthesis installation, the problem of the condensation of the ammonium carbamate is solved by providing a condensation zone composed of a horizontal tube bundle which is placed under the static pressure of a liquid head. The ratio of the liquid head height to the diameter of the circumference encompassing the outermost tube layer of the bundle of tubes is critical: it should be between 5 and 30, 10 being the preferred value.” The purpose of the liquid head is to assure an even distribution of gas and liquid at the inlet of the condenser.