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The Urea Synthesis Reactor, its dynamic model and its industrial applications.
Part 2: Phase Diagram aspects

It has been realized that the core of urea synthesis reaction is dehydrating carbamate in liquid state into urea. This reaction is the main one in urea synthesis and is called urea formation reaction for short hereafter. The goal is to push the reaction to proceed in an ideal direction.
However, in industrial production scale, there are lots of difficulties and interferences which hinder the reaction to proceed in the expected direction. The main cause hindering the main reaction from becoming an ideal one is that there are two synthesis reactions interfering each other and these are combined with very complex chemical processes. Part 1 of this paper is presented in the  UreaKnowHow.com Process Paper August 2009 and covers the reaction and heat effect aspects. This paper is Part 2 and covers the phase equilibrium aspects.