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Starting in 1992, Safurex material (a super duplex material) was developed by Stamicarbon and Sandvik Materials Technology resulting if the fabrication of numerous HP Equipment items and complete HP synthesis sections. In case the HP stripper is made from Safurex and the carbamate condenser made from 25-22-2 stainless steel or Safurex, it is possible to reduce the oxygen content in the carbon dioxide from 0.6 vol% to only 0.3 vol% as has been proven for the first time at Shiraz Petrochemical Company in Shiraz in Islamic Republic of Iran. The lower oxygen content increases the capacity of the CO2 compressor, increases the conversion figures in the synthesis, reduces the ammonia emission figures and reduces the explosion risks.


Giacomo Fauser was born in Novara on 11 January 1892. After classical studies, typical of that time, Giacomo Fauser enrolled at Milan Polytechnic and graduated in mechanical engineering on 23 December 1918, after the stagnation caused by the Great War. At that time the mechanical engineering studies contemplated also the design, construction and operation of chemical plants and these are the areas in which they would be distinguished Fauser. He started working very young and did the first experiments in the family foundry, realizing a electrolytic cell of water that would provide economic oxygen for autogenous welding. He developed the industrial production of ammonia by the process came to be known with the name "Fauser-Montecatini". Giacomo Fauser subsequently devised, in addition to that for ammonia, also to the processes for production of nitric acid (1923), ammonium sulphate (1927), ammonium nitrate (1931) and urea (1935). From those years, thanks to the results achieved, the company began to circulate the saying "Montecatini is Fauser and Fauser is Montecatini".

A new study reveals that these early agriculturalists were fertilizing their crops with manure 8000 years ago, thousands of years earlier than previously thought. So how did early farmers figure out that spreading manure was a key to farming success? Bogaard says that there are several plausible scenarios. Areas of "natural dung accumulation," where animals hung out, would have provided "patches of superfertile ground that early crops would have colonized," she points out, adding that "subsistence farmers are extremely observant of small differences in growth and productivity among their plots." Click here for more information.

More than 175 years ago, a scientific debate was raging in Europe over the importance of N for the growth of plants. British scientists Bennet Lawes and Joseph Henry Gilbert settled the debate when they published research showing that the addition of N fertilizers increased wheat yields in England. Fifty years later, industrialized nations were challenged with how to feed their growing populations and Great Britain was importing the majority of its wheat. In 1898, William Crooks, president for the British Association for the Advancement of Science, called for chemistry researchers to find solutions to aid in the manufacture of N fertilizers to help solve the coming food crisis.


Mr. Umberto Zardi, president of Casale Group, has numerous patents registered. One we like to highlight: US patent 4,082,797 filed on April 20, 1976. This patent claims the invention of the horizontal kettle type high pressure carbamate condenser and at that time Mr. Umberto Zardi worked for Snamprogetti.

“In a urea-synthesis installation, the problem of the condensation of the ammonium carbamate is solved by providing a condensation zone composed of a horizontal tube bundle which is placed under the static pressure of a liquid head. The ratio of the liquid head height to the diameter of the circumference encompassing the outermost tube layer of the bundle of tubes is critical: it should be between 5 and 30, 10 being the preferred value.” The purpose of the liquid head is to assure an even distribution of gas and liquid at the inlet of the condenser.