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This report describes the current situation for fertiliser production in the Netherlands and the options and preconditions for its decarbonisation.
Fertilisers essentially provide three major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) in plant crop available forms. This report focuses on the nitrogen-based fertiliser production at Yara Sluiskil and OCI Nitrogen, because these are the largest companies in terms of production volumes and energy consumption.
Ammonia production is the most energy-intensive process in the fertiliser industry. In the conventional ammonia production process, ammonia is produced by steam methane reforming of natural gas combined with Haber-Bosch NH3 synthesis. Alternatively, hydrogen with a lower CO2 footprint (e.g. green hydrogen) can be produced on-site or supplied from external sources. Ammonia plants produce large flows of almost pure CO2 gas, which are potentially well suited for carbon storage (CCS).