This book is intended to be a resource for process design and plant engineers who are responsible for designing and running processes handling powders and bulk solids in the chemical, pharmaceutical and related manufacturing industries. The book can also be an aid for process hazard analysis (PHA) teams and leaders, and for people operating small plants and toll operations. It may also be useful to insurance and regulatory personnel with assignments at industrial facilities that process, store, or transport large quantities of solid particulates.
The main focus of the book is on the instability, reactivity and combustibility hazards of particulate solids manufactured or handled in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Toxicity hazards are also discussed, but to a lesser extent than the other hazards. Much of the material presented may also apply to the food processing, grain handling and coal mining industries. The book does not cover the hazards of Explosives (UN-DOT Class 1 Materials) but does include UN/DOT Class 4 material (flammable solids, spontane- ously combustible materials and materials that are dangerous when wet) Class 5 materials (oxidizers and organic peroxides), and Class 6.1 toxic mate- rials, as well as the testing to distinguish explosives from the other UN-DOT categories.
Definitions and examples of these hazards and some key national and international standards covering them are presented in Section 1.2. All four generic hazards depend on particle size and various other particulate properties. Descriptions of these properties and their measurement are provided in Chapter 2 of this book. Accident scenarios and case histories are discussed briefly in Section 1.3, and in much more detail in Chapter 3. Particulate hazard assessment, via laboratory testing and other methods, is described in Chapter 4, with Appendix A being a listing of laboratories that conduct these tests. The types of particulate storage and handling equipment, are described in Appendix B. Chapter 5 is a discussion of the hazards and corresponding protection methods for the various equipment and operations in Appendix B. General protection measures applicable to particulate handling/processing equipment and facilities are described in Chapter 6. Chap- ter 7 discusses how plant operation and maintenance practices can influence particulate hazards. The final chapter, Chapter 8, describes occupational health and environmental concerns and regulations pertinent to potentially hazardous particulate material processing.