Climate change caused by an increase in the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases is likely to affect adversely the food security and agricultural sustainability. Indian agriculture is highly prone to the risks due to climate change. In India, food grain production is closely related to use of nitrogenous fertiliser which will increase several folds by 2050 to meet the demand of increased food production.The application of N fertiliser results in loss of reactive forms of N such as ammonia, nitrate, and nitrogen oxides as well as nitrous oxide, a major greenhouse gas. Reactive nitrogen (Nr) has short and long term as well as direct and indirect effects on global warming and cooling, thereby impacting regional and global atmospheric chemistry and climate change. Crop management practices, which lead to increased N-use efficiency while limiting the N-losses, hold the key to mitigating Nr emissions. Efficient management of N in agriculture could be the driving force for climate change mitigation and adaptation.