High reliability of plants and equipment is essential for continuous, safe and efficient operation of plants. This paper presents the results of a downtime survey of 27 ammonia and 27 urea plants in India for the three year period of April, 2005 to March, 2008. The paper presents analysis of downtime data and energy efficiency of plants. The downtime data has been classified into forced (plant and business related) and planned shutdown. Based on the nature of downtime, three operating indices e.g. operating factor, service factor and reliability factor have been worked out. The data for plant related downtime has been analyzed In detail to identify specific sections and equipment causing forced shutdown. Trends In force downtime and energy efficiency over a long period have also been recorded.