2024 AICHE Modeling water content in Carbon Dioxide Transportation

However, several issues can arise when the temperature and pressure condi­tions do not allow the water to stay dissolved. If liquid water is present, this can corrode the carbon steel pipeline due to the formation of carbonic acid. At very low tempera­tures, the water may even freeze as solid ice, but the formation of a solid clathrate hydrate phase may be more likely at the high pressures at which CO2 pipelines operate.
Clathrate hydrates (or gas hydrates) are a solid, crys­talline form of water that form at high pressures and low temperatures in the presence of small guest molecules. Gas hydrates have historically been studied for their tendency to form plugs in oil and gas pipelines — a phenomenon that is also a concern in pipelines used for CCS purposes.

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