2023 Tabeei CFD Modeling of an industrial scale two-fluid nozzle fluidized bed granulator

A 3D computational fluid dynamic modeling of atomization and fluidization of urea was simulated in an external mixing, bottom spray, fluidized bed granulator. The Eulerian–Lagrangian approach was used to predict the mean diameter of melt urea droplets similar to the droplets produced by an industrial scale two-fluid nozzle under hot atomized air. Temperature changes and evaporation of water content from droplets were determined during simulations. Furthermore, three-phase fluidization was simulated in the Eulerian approach whereby the bed expansion of the granulator was predicted. The mean diameter of droplets and bed height were found in good agreement with the empirical correlation and the real bed height, as characterized by a level transmitter instrument in the industrial granulator, respectively. The important features of this study included solving mass, heat and hydraulic equations simultaneously, as well as simulating a real urea fluidized bed granulation unit.

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