2012 Budinski Failure analysis of a rubber hose in anhydrous ammonia service

The micro FTIR spectra confirm that the PET fibers in first and second braid layers of the ruptured hose are chemically degraded to ammonium salts of terephthalic acid (ammonolysis).
Optical microscopy reveals that the reinforcing fibers in the first and second braid layers are mechanically degraded such that they are brittle.
Optical fractography indicates that the hose rupture initiated on the inside surface of the hose and propagated toward the exterior and longitudinally along the hose.
The loss in mechanical properties of the first and second reinforcing layers reduced the maximum allowable pressure of the hose below the operating pressure experienced during an ammonia transfer, causing the hose to rupture.

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