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2011 Bernhard Evaporation of Urea at Atmospheric Pressure

Aqueous urea solution is widely used as reducing agent in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx (SCR). Because reports of urea vapor at atmospheric pressure are rare, gaseous urea is usually neglected in computational models used for designing SCR systems. In this study, urea evaporation was investigated under fl ow reactor conditions, and a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of gaseous urea was recorded at atmospheric pressure for the fi rst time. The spectrum was compared to literature data under vacuum conditions and with theoretical spectra of monomolecular and dimeric urea in the gas phase calculated with the density functional theory (DFT) method. Comparison of the spectra indicates that urea vapor is in the monomolecular form at atmospheric pressure. The measured vapor pressure of urea agrees with the thermodynamic data obtained under vacuum reported in the literature. Our results indicate that considering gaseous urea will improve the computational modeling of urea SCR systems.


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