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2009 02 Brouwer Urea, its history and applications

This process paper of February 2009 is a general paper and steps back into the history of urea where in 1773 the French chemist Hillaire Marin Rouelle urea discovered and in 1828 the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler was able to synthesise urea. In 1868 the German chemist Alexander I. Basaroff (or was he Russian and named Basarow ?) discovered that ammonium carbamate would convert into urea at elevated pressure and temperature. Urea was produced by heating ammonium carbamate in a sealed vessel. This discovery provided the basis of the current industrial process for its production. In 1922 the production process of urea as a continuous process, is invented by Carl Bosch (the same Carl Bosch from the Haber Bosch ammonia process) and Wilhelm Meiser and is called the Bosch-Meiser urea process after its discoverers.  Further the paper describes the different applications of urea including ofcourse one of its latest applications to reduce NOx emissions.



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