1966 Price 3268631 prilling ammonium salt urea
This invention describes a new process to form solid urea-quaternary ammonium salts complex with good storage and handling properties. Then quaternary ammonium salt is added in a 80-85 wt% urea solution. The salt can be dissolved in water or an organic solvent. In the final evaporation the solvent and water will be removed.
Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure NR4+ with R being alkyl groups. Unlike the ammonium ion NH4+ itself and primary, secondary, or tertiary ammonium cations, the quaternary ammonium cations are permanently charged, independent of the pH of their solution. Quaternary ammonium cations are synthesized by complete alkylation of ammonia or other amines. For possible synthesis route, see amines.
Quaternary ammonium salts or quaternary ammonium compounds (called quaternary amines in oilfield parlance) are salts of quaternary ammonium cations with an anion. They are used as disinfectants, surfactants, fabric softeners, and as antistatic agents (e.g. in shampoo). In liquid fabric softeners, the chloride salts are often used. In dryer anticling strips, the sulfate salts are often used. This is also a common ingredient in many spermicidal jellies.
Quats are most effective against gram-positive bacteria. Also good against fungi, amoeba, and enveloped viruses. Quats act by disrupting the cell membrane and proteins. Quats kill just about everything except endospores, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, lipid-containing viruses, and Pseudomonas spp. (some Pseudomonas spp. can even grow in solutions of quats, subsisting on them).